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Convention on the Rights of the Child

Working children

Working children are those children that are hired permanently as a workers that prevents them from going to school and threats their physical and psychic health. Child labor is seen by many countries and international organizations as an exploitative practice.

 

Child labor is very common and may include factory work, mining, and prostitution, agriculture, helping in the parents' business, having personal business (such as selling food) or unusual work. The most unacceptable forms of child labor is to use them in military affairs and child prostitution. Less controversial and often illegal (with some limitations) are of agricultural work during school holidays (seasonal work), business outside of school hours as well as acting or singing.

Child labor has been prevalent in different levels during the history, however with the initiation of the public education and changes that took place in working condition as a result of industrial evolution and also with the emergence of the concepts like worker rights and children rights, the issues were under the supervision of public. Child labor is prevalent in the areas with the low age of school leaving.

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), annually 250 million children 5 to 14 years are deprived of their childhood. According to the statistics, 120 million of them will enter the labor market and are working full-time. 61% of these children are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% in Latin America. Trafficking of children entering major routes to market. Except for slave labor, prostitution and sale of children, human trafficking is the major way of entering children into market. Aside from slavery like working, prostitution and selling parts of the children's' body is the fate of these children

Child labor is a relatively complex issue and various factors influence it. Such as: family structure, poverty, sudden economic changes caused by the war and ... (leading to migrate to neighboring countries to work with ore wages) and the cost of education and the incorrect educational system.

Working Children are in very adverse conditions in terms of nutrition, health and perform dangerous tasks. The children can easily be abused by professional criminals, including thieves or drug gangs, heads of prostitution houses.

 

Street children

Street children are homeless kids who spent a period of his life on the streets. Street children is a social disorder.

On the basis of Article I of the Child Rights Convention, Street children are individuals who are under 18 years, living and working in the streets. They do not have family or their family is out of reach but they can go back to their family and the family is also waiting for them and also those children that the family is not waiting for them.

Factors such as the failure of family, war, poverty, natural or human accidents, abuse by adults, migration and violence are the most important factors that push children in to street. 

 

Regarding the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the protection and welfare of children with special mention to the issue of fosterling and national and international foster, the united nation law of the minimum standard about the justice for immature children (the Beijing rules) and the declaration of women and children rights in the emergency situations and war time, and regarding the fact that in all over the world there are children that live in difficult situation and they need especial attention, with regard to traditional values and the culture of each country about supporting and same education,

And given the importance of international cooperation for improving the living conditions of children in all countries, particularly developing countries, the following agreements were reached:

Part 1

Article 1

In terms of this Convention, a child means individuals under the age of 18 unless based on the law applicable to the child, the age of puberty is detected less than this age.

Article 2

1.The States members of the  Convention,  will respect and guarantee the rights concerned in this Convention for all children who live within their jurisdiction, without discrimination because of race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion, nationality, social status Ethnic , property, disability, birth or other personal status of parents or legal guardian.

2. States members of the Convention will take all necessary measurements to ensure the protection of children against all forms of discrimination, punishment based on location, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the parents, legal guardians or family members.

Article 3

1. In all actions relating to children taken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts, administrative authorities or legal entities, the interests of the children is the most important considerations.

2. States members of Convention promised to ensure support and necessary care for the well-being of children, according to the rights and duties of their parents, guardians or other persons that are legally responsible for them, and in this regard appropriate legal and administrative measures will normally be taken.

3. The States members of the Convention will ensure that the institutions, services and means that are responsible for supporting and taking care of children must be competent in accordance with criteria that are set by authorities particularly in the areas of safety, health, number of employees and institutions supervision and inspection

Article 4

The States members of the Convention will take necessary legal and administrative measures for the realization of the recognized rights in the current Convention. The States members of the Convention with regard to economic, social and cultural rights take actions in order to use the maximum of their available resources and, if necessary, within the framework of international cooperation.

Article 5

The State members of the Convention promised to respect the responsibilities and rights of the parents and members of a family that is created through local traditions, and also guardian and other people that legally are responsible for the child rights. They try to provide necessary guidance and consultancy toward the evolution of child abilities so as to implementing recognized child rights in this convention.

Article 6

1. The state members of the convention recognize the natural rights of each child for living.

2. The state members of the convention ensure to provide maximum facilities for existence and advancement of children.

Article 7

1. The birth of a child is registered immediately after birth and the rights such as the right to a name, to acquire a nationality and, whenever possible, right to identify their parents and be under the supervision of them must be provided.

2. States members of the Convention considered these rights as obligatory in accordance with national law and their obligations under relevant international documents in this field, in particular where the child would be considered as homeless if the rights be neglected.

Article 8

1. States members of the Convention, based on law ant without intervention, ensure the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations.

2. In case that a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the rights related to their identity, States members promised to support and provide necessary assistance to take these rights immediately.

Article 9

1. States members of the Convention ensure that, in spite of the wishes of children, they are not separated from their parents, unless the competent authorities in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and the judicial investigation determined that this separation is beneficiary for children. These kind of decisions may be necessary in cases especially when parents abuse the children or are inattentive to children or at the time of divorce. In this term, the place where the child should be live need to be taken into account.

2. In each of the proceedings of the first paragraph of Article 9 all parties involved in the proceedings should be given the opportunity to engage in the court and express their opinions.

3. States members of the Convention respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents, to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, unless it would be against the interests of the child.

4. When the separation is as a result of government measures such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death while person is detained) of one or both parents or the child, States members of the Convention, regarding the request of parents or child or, if appropriate, informs a family member about individual property of the absentee, unless giving such information is detrimental to the child. States members of the Convention will ensure that submission of this request does not have detrimental after effect for the related individuals 

Article 10

1. with regard to the commitment of States members of the Convention in the first paragraph of article 9, parents or child's request for entering or leaving the country to have family reunion, is investigated positively and immediately by the States members of the Convention. States members of the Convention also ensure that the submission of such requests do not have negative consequences for the applicants and their members.

2.A child whose parent live in separate countries, apart from exceptional circumstances, has the right to have direct contact with both parents on a regular basis at all times. For this purpose and in accordance with the obligations set out in paragraph 2 of Article 9, States members of the Convention respect the rights of parents and children to leave any country, including their national country and enter any other country will honor. The right to leave any country is subject to limitations prescribed by law and are necessary to protect national security, public order, public health or morals or the rights or freedoms of others or other rights recognized in the Convention.

Article 11

1. States members of the Convention take on measures to combat trafficking and non-return transferring of children.

2. In this regard, States members of the Convention encourage the bilateral or multilateral agreements or accepting existing agreements.

 Article 12

1. States members of the Convention will ensure that a child who is capable of shaping their ideas, can freely express their ideas on all matters relating to them. The views of children must be respected in accordance with his age and maturity.

2. In this respect, opportunities must be provided for children to express his ideas on any stages of the court and judicial process directly or through a representative or a suitable person in a way that is in accordance with national administrative laws. 

 Article 13

 1. The child has the right to express his ideas freely. This right includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media by the child's choice.

2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these restrictions are limited to cases prescribed by law and are necessary.

 (A) For respect to the rights or reputations of others

(B) For the protection of national security or public order or for public health or ethical issues.

Article 14

1. States members of the Convention respect the right of freedom of thought, conscience and religion about children.

2. States members of the Convention respect the rights and duties of parents or other legal guardian to guide children toward exercise their rights in a way that would promote the talents and abilities of the children.

Article 15

1. States members of the Convention respect the children rights to have meetings and peaceful gatherings.

2. Aside from restrictions mention in laws or those which are necessary to keep national security measures or public security, public principle, public health and ethics and freedom of others, there is no other restriction in practice of these rights.

Article 16

1. It is not permitted to interfere private, family or correspondence of children illegally or willfully.

2. The child is supported by the law against these interferences.

Article 17

States members of the Convention observe the performance of group Medias and ensure the accessibility of information and subjects from different and international sources, especially those related to improvement of social welfare, mystical and ethical and physical and mental hygiene for children. In this regard, countries take the following actions:

 A) Encouraging the mass media to broadcast information and material that has social and cultural benefits for the child and is also consistent with the spirit of Article 29.

B) Encouraging the international cooperation in the fields of production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from various cultural, national and international sources

C) Encouraging the production and publishing children's books

D) Encouraging the mass media to pay particular attention to the needs related to language education of children who belong to minority groups or indigenous.

E) Encouraging the development of appropriate policies to protect the child against information and material that harms his well-being in according with the provisions of Articles 13 and 18.

Article 18

1. States members of the Convention put their efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that the child's parents have common responsibilities for the growth and development of children. Parents or legal guardian are responsible to bear on the growth and development of children. The fundamental issue for the parents is to save Relief interests of the child.

2. States members of the Convention guarantee the implementation of necessary cooperation with parents and legal guardian about their responsibilities to educate the child to ensure the practice of rights mentioned in this convention.

3. States members of the Convention take all necessary measures to ensure rights of children with working parents. They guarantee services and facilities for taking care of children.

 Article 19

1. States members of the Convention take all legal, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical and psychological violence, harm or abuse, negligence, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse while the child is under parental care or the legal guardian or any other person.

2. These kind of supportive measures in appropriate conditions should be included effective measures so as to create social plans in terms of providing necessary supports for child or those who are responsible for taking care of them. Also, the countries guarantee supporting parents against other forms of restrictions, preventing, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and watching maltreatment cases previously mentioned as well as support from prosecution as the case may be.

Article 20

1. Children should not be deprived of a family environment and their interests temporarily or permanently and they should be under the care and assistance of the government.

2. States members of the Convention according to their national laws should ensure alternative care for these children.

3. Such care includes a lot of cases, including the appointment of a guardian or trustee in Islamic law, adoption or, if necessary, sending children to suitable institutions for the care of children. When reviewing the optimal solution they must pay attention to efficient continuous education of children, ethnicity, religion, culture and language of children.

Article 21

Countries that recognize and authorized guardian system should give priority to the interests of the child and observe the following points.

A) To guarantee that the adoption is done through competent authorities. The adoption process should be based on obligatory rules and regulations and with regards to factual and reliable information. They specify that the adoption is allowed with respect to the child relationship with his parents and relatives.  Authorities should requires the consent of these people for adoption based on necessary regulations.

B) To ensure that if it is impossible to have a guardian in his own country, adoption in other countries should be taken into account as a solution.

 

C) To ensure that children who are adopted in other countries are provided with legal care and as their own country.

D) Taking all necessary measures to ensure that adoption of children in other countries does not have financial interests for the guardian.

E) If necessary, to reach the aims of this article through bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements and endeavor, within this framework it should be guaranteed that the adoption of children in another country is done through the organ or the competent authorities.

Article 22

1. States members of the Convention take the necessary measures to ensure that, in accordance with local laws and international regulations, a child who is seeking refugee status or asylum, either with their parents or another person, is provided with humanitarian assistance and human rights in the Convention or other documents or required human rights that so-called countries are committed to them.

2. To this respect, States members of the Convention at its discretion cooperate with the United Nations and other international or non-profit organizations that work with united nation, in long with helping and supporting these children and chasing the parents or other members of the family of refugee children and in order to obtain necessary information to reunite the members of family. In case failing in finding parents or members of the family, they should treat the child based on the points mentioned in this convention, same as a child that temporarily or permanently is derived from family environment.

Article 23

1. States members of the Convention state that a mentally or physically impaired child should be kept is in conditions which ensures his dignity and self-reliant and facilitate the active participation of children in society, so that he can grow up and has a dignified life

2. States members of the Convention respect the rights of disabled children to have especial cares and ensures providing these services in accordance with condition of parents or those who are responsible. These services are given providing that the resources are available.

3. Recognizing the especial needs of disabled child the supposed helps mentioned in paragraph 2of this article, if necessary, should be provided for free and with regard to financial status of parents. It should be planned in a way that the disabled child be able to access education, training, and health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and creating opportunities for children in a way that achieves the highest perfection of social and personal development, including cultural and spiritual progress.

4. States members of the Convention in the light of international cooperation, would implement exchange of information on health care for prevention and medical treatment, psychological and rehabilitation of disabled children, including publishing information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and professional services to enable States members of the Convention to advance their skills and abilities and expand their experiences in this field. In this regard, particular attention will be paid to the needs of developing countries.

Article 24

1. States members of the Convention respect the right of the child to have the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation. They are responsible for ensuring that no child is deprived of the right of access to health services.

2. States members of the Convention investigate the projects till the full implementation of this right, they will adopt appropriate procedures. Especially in the following areas

A) Reducing the mortality rate of infants and children

B) Ensuring the provision of medical consultations and primary health care

C) Tackling disease and malnutrition, within the framework of primary health care through the application of available technologies and by providing nutritious food and safe drinking water and considering the dangers of environmental pollution.

D) Guaranteeing pre and post-natal care to mothers.

E) Ensuring that all walks of society, especially parents and children be informed about benefits of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental health and access the education be supported with use of basic information on child hygiene and nutrition. 

F) The development of preventive health care, providing the necessary guidance for parents and family planning education and services.

3. States members of the Convention take all necessary and appropriate measures to eliminate traditional treatment methods and superstitions about children health.

4. States members of the Convention promised to promote and encourage international cooperation to achieve progressively the full realization of the rights recognized in this Convention. In this regard, particular attention will be paid to the needs of developing countries.

Article 25

States members of the Convention periodically examine the rights of children who, to provide services including maintenance, safety, physical and mental health, is given to a family or an organization by competent authorities so as to observe the way they treat the children. The countries also investigate treatment course provided for the child and all the matters related to taking care of the child.

Article 26

1. States members of the Convention respect the right of having social security, including social insurance for all children and take appropriate measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with national legislation

2. These benefits and other investigations should be provided for the child and those who take responsibility of taking care of the child with regard to interests and conditions of the child.

Article 27

1. States members of the Convention respect the right of every child to an adequate standard of living for the physical, mental, spiritual, moral, social development.

2. The parents or other guardian, have a major responsibility to ensure adequate living conditions for the child's development in the context of their talents and resources.

3. States members of the Convention, based on national conditions and with regard to its facilities, take necessary measures to help parents and other responsible people, to apply these rights and if necessary, financial help and supportive plans especially related to nutrition, clothing and housing.  

4. States members of the Convention ensure that all child expenses related to the child are paid by parents or those who take financial responsibility of the child, whether inside the country or outside. In cases where the person responsible for the financial affairs of the child lives in a country, States members of the Convention would facilitate adoption of international agreements or such agreements, as well as accelerating other necessary arrangements.

Article 28

1. States members of the Convention recognize the right of the child to education and to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunities, will take the following actions:

A)  Providing free and compulsory primary education for all

B) Encouraging the development of different forms of secondary education including vocational and general education, accessibility of these educations for all children and taking necessary measures like providing free education and financial support if necessary.

C) Providing accessible higher education for all based on the ability and by whatever appropriate means.

D) Providing available educational and vocational information and guidance for all children.

E) Taking measures to encourage regular attendance of children in schools and reducing absenteeism.

2. States members of the Convention take all necessary measures to ensure that discipline in schools is in accordance with the preservation of human dignity of children and in accordance with the present Convention.

3. States members of the Convention increase the international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to technical information and scientific and modern methods of training, encourage. In this regard, particular attention will be on the needs of developing countries.

Article 29

1. States members of the Convention agree that the following should be the education of the children.

A) The full development of personality, talents and mental, physical abilities of children.

B) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and the principles in the UN Charter.

C) The development of respect for the child's parents, cultural identity, language and literature and national values of the country where he lives, and the child's country of origin and civilizations different from his civilization.

D) The preparation of the child for having responsible life in a free society and a spirit (full) of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious and other parties.

E) The development of respect for the natural environment.

2. No part of this article and article 28 should not be considered as a block of freedom of individual and organs to establish or to run educational institute. Educational institute based on the first paragraph of this article and on the condition of providing education courses in accordance with the least standard announced by government. 

 

Article 30

In a country that local or religious minorities are living, a child related to these minorities must have equal right of culture, religious ceremony or its language. 

Article 31

1. States members of the Convention respect the right of the child to rest and relax and play and creative activities appropriate to his age and participate freely in cultural life and to recognize art.

2. States members of the Convention respect the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life, and develop and provide opportunities to participate in cultural and artistic activities to encourage creative and entertainment.

Article 32

1. States members of the Convention respect the right of the child to be supported against economic exploitation and doing any work that is harmful or stops his education or a work that is harmful for his physical, mental, mystical, ethical and social advancement.

2. States members of the Convention take the necessary legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of this article. In this regard, and according to relevant provisions in other international instruments, States members of the Convention will consider the following:

A) Setting a minimum age or minimum ages for working.

B) Determining the appropriate regulation of the hours and working conditions.

C) Imposing punishments or other appropriate guarantees to ensure the effective implementation of this Article.

Article 33

States members of the Convention take all necessary legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to support children against illegal use of drugs, as it is defined in international protocols, and to prevent children abuse in illegal production and drug trafficking. 

Article 34

States members of the Convention take the necessary legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to support children against all forms of abuse and sexual exploitation. To this end, these countries take especially national, bilateral and multilateral action in order to prevent the following matters:

A) Encouraging or forcing children to engage in any sexual activity.

B) The exploitative use of children in prostitution and other illegal acts of sex.

C) The exploitative use of children in actions and pornographic content.

Article 35

States members of the Convention take all the necessary national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction, sale or trafficking of children in any form or for any purpose.

Article 36

States members of the Convention support children against all forms of exploitation that put any aspects of the child's welfare endanger.

Article 37

States members of the Convention promised the implementation of the following:

A) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or be contrary to human dignity. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of amnesty cannot be imposed on children under 18 years.

B) No child shall be detained illegally and arbitrarily. Arresting, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and as a last way and should be for the shortest possible time.

C) Child prisoners should be treated humanely and respectfully due to the innate human value. They should be treated in way that the needs regarding his age are taken into account. Child prisoners should be separated from adults unless it would be contrary to the interests of the child. Except in exceptional circumstances a child has the right to be in touch with his family through letters and visits.

D) Any children prisoner must have the right to fast access to judicial consultancy or other necessary helps and also the right to protest against his illegal imprisonment to court or other independent impartial competent authorities.

Article 38

1. States members of the Convention agree to respect the provisions of the International Humanitarian law related to children in the time of armed conflict.

2. States members of the Convention take any practical measures to ensure that persons under the age of 15 do not participate directly in hostilities.

3. States members of the Convention avoid the employment of persons less than 15 in the armed forces. These countries give priority to recruit older people in case of applicants over 15 and under the age of 18.

4. States members of the Convention, in accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect civilians during armed conflict, take all practical measures to ensure protection and care of children affected by (the consequences of) the war.

Article 39

States members of the Convention undertake to take all necessary measures to accelerate physical, mental improvement and social adaptation of children who are victims of negligence, exploitation, abuse, torture or other acts of violence, inhuman treatment or war. The process of recovery and reintegration must be in an environment that leads to health, self-reliance and respect for the child.

Article 40

1. States members of the Convention respect the right that in case of young offenders or children accused of illegal activities, treat the children in accordance with the observations and value of the children. This would lead to increase of children respect to human rights and the fundamental freedom of others. Considering the age of children would increase his willing to reconcile with the society and to accept a role. 

2. To this end and in accordance with relevant provisions of international instruments, States members of the Convention ensure the following:

A) No child shall be charged or convicted due to committing acts that at the time of the commission is not prohibited by national or international law.

B) Every child accused or convicted of violating the criminal law, at least, has the following supports:

1) To be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

2) Fast direct knowledge of the charges against him and, if necessary, by a parent or legal guardian, and the right of having a legal advice or other assistance in the preparation and presentation of defense.

3) The case should be enlightened immediately by impartial and independent judicial authorities through a justice court in presence of a parent or legal guardian of the chill, unless this is not in long with child interest regarding the age, sex, situation of the child or parents and legal guardian.

4. Not to be compelled to give testimony or statements, and the possibility of examining adverse witnesses' statements, and getting permission to involver witnesses on equal terms.

5. Accessing to government officials or competent, independent and impartial judicial organ according to the law in case of being innocent.

6. The right to make use of an interpreter for free if the child is not able to understand the language used in court.

7. Full confidentiality of issue during the judicial process.

3. States members of the Convention attempt to increase set of regulation and to establish organization related to accused children, or those who are criminal due to neglecting laws. The countries would take the following actions:

A) To maintain the minimum age for criminal violations of the law in a way that below this age, children do not have responsibility.

B) If appropriate and desired, setting rules for dealing with such children be without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully observed.

4. The countries provide child keeping regulations, guidance, investigation, consultancy, penalty suspension, guardian process, education and educational plan and other measures to ensure that children would be treated in accordance with welfare and the conditions of committed crime.

Article 41

None of the provisions of the Convention, affect the rules that are effective in children's rights. The following provisions are not affected by the convention:

A) The law of the Member State, or

B) International law in force in that country.

Part 2

Article 42

Member States are required to inform adults and children about the principles and provisions of the Convention in a suitable and active ways.

Article 43

1. In order to check the progress of Member States to fulfill their obligations to the Convention, the Committee on the Rights of the Child should be formed to perform its duties.

2. The Committee consists of ten experts with excellent moral qualification on the fields listed in the Convention. Committee members are elected by States Parties from their nationals to give service with their own personal responsibility. In this regard, the equal geographic distribution and major legal systems are paid attention. 

3. The members of the Committee are selected from the list of candidates by the secret ballot of Member States. Each of the member countries can nominate one person from its own nationals.

4. The primary election of the Committee will be carried out, within less than six months after the date of implementation of the Convention and then it will be carried out every 2 years. At least 4 months before each election, the General Secretary of United Nation wrote to the Member States and asks them to determine their candidates within two months. Later, the Secretary General prepare an alphabetical list of nominees and their countries and submit it to the States Parties.

5. The Election carried out in the member meetings that is inaugurated by the Secretary General. At the meeting  that come in to force with the presence of two-thirds of member, committee members will be selected from those who have the most votes and an absolute majority of the votes of member states.

6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of 2 years. If the candidate in case of nominating for another time, have the right of being chosen again. The working time of five members elected at the first election expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election the names of these five people will be announced by the Chairman and will be determined by election.

 

8. The Committee will set its own regulations.

9. The Committee will elect its officers for a period of 2 years.

10. Committee meetings are normally held in one of the headquarters of the United Nations or any other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The committee normally held its meeting annually. The duration of the meetings is determined in a gathering that members of the committee are present and then with the verification of public gathering and if necessary it can be changed.

11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations prepare the necessary equipment and personnel to ensure the usefulness of the functions of the Committee under the Convention.

12. With the approval of the General Assembly, members of the committee that will be formed under the Convention, during the period of service receive salaries through the budget of the United Nations and under the terms that the General Assembly may determine.

Article 44

1. The state member promise to submit reports about the measures that have been done to reach known rights in the convention through secretary general of UN and submit the advances to the committee.

A) Within two years after the implementation of the Convention in the related country 

B) and then every 5 years

2. The report that is prepared in accordance with this Article, should depict the factors and troubles that are likely to block the way of undertaking the provisions of the convention. These reports also should include enough information to give a comprehensive picture of the implementation of the Convention in the related country.

3. The State that has submitted a comprehensive primary report to the Committee, could avoid providing political information that has prepared previously in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) of this article.

4. The Committee may seek additional information from member states on how the Convention is implemented.

5. The Committee will provide reports on its activities to the General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council every two years.

6. Member States should provide their reports widely available for the public in their countries.

Article 45

In order to accelerate the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international cooperation in the fields mentioned therein:

A) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other organs of that organizations can monitor the implementation of the provisions of this Convention within the area of their authority. Committee may invited, as the case of the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies to participate on the fields that the authority is concerned and to provide professional views on the implementation of the Convention,. The Committee also can ask specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other United Nations bodies to submit report about the implementation of the Convention on the grounds that their mandate is concerned.

B) The committee can forward the reports submitted by state members that contains request for cooperation and technical assistance, along with its own opinions and offers, to specialized organization, children's fund of united nation and other competent organs.

C) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to ask the Secretary-General to study specific topics related to children's rights by his own.

D) The Committee may, on the basis of information received, declare its suggestions and general comments on the application of Articles 44 and 45 of the Convention. These comments will be sent to the State Party concerned and will be reported to the General Assembly along with the views of that member states

Section 3

Article 46

This Convention shall be open for signature to all countries.

Article 47

This Convention is subject to ratification. The documents of ratification will remain with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48

All countries can become members of this Convention, the membership documents will be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 49

1. This Convention will be applicable 30 days after the date of the deposit of the twentieth document of ratification or membership to UN Secretary- General.

2.for every country that ratify the convention or be the member of it after the deposit of the 20th document of ratification or membership, this convention can be put in to force 30 days after the deposit of document of ratification or membership of that country.

Article 50

1. Each Member States may propose an amendment and submit it to the Secretary General of the United Nations. Secretary-General shares the proposed amendment to the other Member States and asks them about holding the Conference of the Parties to review and vote on the received proposals. In case that within four months after the announcement of the Secretary-General, at least one third of the Member States be in favor of such a conference, the Secretary-General will inaugurate the conference with the help of the United Nations. The Amendment adopted by a majority of member states who are present at the conference, will be sent for approval to the General Assembly.

2. Any amendment that is approved in accordance with the first paragraph of this article, after the adoption of the UN General Assembly and accepted by two-thirds majority of States Parties will be applicable.

3. When an amendment is put into force, only the countries that have adopted it, are obliged to implement it. Other States Parties are still bound by this Convention and other previous amendments which they have accepted.

Article 51

1. UN Secretary-General states receive text comments of the countries at the time of ratification or membership and share it with other countries.

2. Comments inconsistent with the purposes and objectives of the Convention are prohibited and will not be accepted.

3. Comments can be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General will also underway all countries. The announcement is in to force from the date when the Secretary-General receive it.

Article 52

The member states can be removed from the membership of the Convention By sending a written notice to the Secretary General. This is applicable a year after the date of receiving the notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 53

UN Secretary-General is selected as depositary of this convention.

 Article 54

The original version of the Convention with the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish translation that all are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

This Convention has been signed in presence of Plenipotentiary representatives authorized by their respective governments. 

Source:

 

http://www.unic-ir.org/hr/convenantion-child.htm

 

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